Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis forthe Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
LANCET, 3 abril de 2019.
Background Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however,Background Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however,its impact on the burden of NCDs has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the consumptionof major foods and nutrients across 195 countries and to quantify the impact of their suboptimal intake on NCDmortality and morbidity.
Methods By use of a comparative risk assessment approach, we estimated the proportion of disease-specific burdenMethods By use of a comparative risk assessment approach, we estimated the proportion of disease-specific burdenattributable to each dietary risk factor (also referred to as population attributable fraction) among adults aged 25 yearsor older. The main inputs to this analysis included the intake of each dietary factor, the effect size of the dietary factoron disease endpoint, and the level of intake associated with the lowest risk of mortality. Then, by use of diseasespecificpopulation attributable fractions, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), we calculated thenumber of deaths and DALYs attributable to diet for each disease outcome.
Findings In 2017, 11 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 10–12) deaths and 255 million (234–274) DALYs wereFindings In 2017, 11 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 10–12) deaths and 255 million (234–274) DALYs wereattributable to dietary risk factors. High intake of sodium (3 million [1–5] deaths and 70 million [34–118] DALYs),low intake of whole grains (3 million [2–4] deaths and 82 million [59–109] DALYs), and low intake of fruits(2 million [1–4] deaths and 65 million [41–92] DALYs) were the leading dietary risk factors for deaths and DALYsglobally and in many countries. Dietary data were from mixed sources and were not available for all countries,increasing the statistical uncertainty of our estimates.
Interpretation This study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of suboptimal diet on NCDInterpretation This study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of suboptimal diet on NCDmortality and morbidity, highlighting the need for improving diet across nations. Our findings will informimplementation of evidence-based dietary interventions and provide a platform for evaluation of their impact onhuman health annually.